Watch files

The watch: section in gramex.yaml triggers events when files are modified. For example:

watch:                                  # Define files to watch
    data-files:                         # Create a watched named data-files
        paths:                          # Watch for these files
            - $YAMLPATH/dir/            # - any file under the dir/ subdirectory
            - $YAMLPATH/*.txt           # - any CSV file under this folder
            - $YAMLPATH/data.csv        # - data.csv in this folder
            - data.xslx                 # - data.xlsx from where Gramex was started
        on_modified: module.function    # When file is changed, call module.function(event)

Each named watch has the following keys:

The event handler functions are called with a single argument event. The event is a watchdog event. Is has the following attributes:

Here is a sample event handler that prints the event:

def watch_file(event):
    print(event.src_path, event.is_directory, event.event_type)

Watching files

Your functions can watch files efficiently. For example, this code will run log() when filename.txt is created, deleted or modified. log() will be called with a watchdog event.

from import watch

def log(event):

watch(name='unique-name', paths=['filename.txt'],
      on_created=log, on_deleted=log, on_modified=log)

# Now, when any changes are made to filename.txt, on_modified is called
# To stop watching, use this:

inotify limit

On Linux, Gramex creates a new inotify instance for each folder observed. The default system limits may not be enough for this.

If you see an “inotify watch limit reached” or “inotify instance limit reached” error, run these commands to increase the limit:

printf "fs.inotify.max_user_instances=512\n" | sudo tee -a /etc/sysctl.conf
printf "fs.inotify.max_user_watches=524288\n" | sudo tee -a /etc/sysctl.conf
sudo sysctl --system

Some useful commands for debugging:

# Lists inotify usage:
for foo in /proc/*/fd/*; do readlink -f $foo; done | grep inotify | cut -d/ -f3 |xargs -I '{}' -- ps --no-headers -o '%p %U %a' -p '{}' | uniq -c | sort -n

# To get the list of processes consuming inotify resources, run:
for foo in /proc/*/fd/*; do readlink -f $foo; done | grep inotify | sort | uniq -c | sort -nr

# Check max watches
sysctl fs.inotify

# List file descriptors used by a process
for f in `/bin/ls /proc/<proc-id>/fd/`; do readlink -f "/proc/<proc-id>/fd/$f"; done | sort | uniq -c | sort -k 1nr

Alternatively, you can disable the Watch by setting it as False in gramex.yaml. This can be useful in containerized apps where you can’t modify the host inotify limit.

        watch: False